Engineering Youth Competition in Association Football for Retention: Assessing the Effectiveness of Rule Change Intervention

Motivation researchers (REF) have reliably demonstrated the ability to enhance a variety of affective, behavioural, and cognitive outcomes by modifying the practice environment to focus on process (i.e., mastery) rather than outcome goals. Whilst effective in practice, adapting the competitive environment within sport has proven more problematic. Rather than promoting an autonomy supportive climate that may positively enhance the athletes’ intrinsic motivation, for many, the competitive environment stifles development (REF). In an effort to tackle this issue, Burton, Gillham & Hammermeister (2011) proposed a conceptual framework for what has now come to be known as ‘Competitive Engineering (CE)’.